Manganese Dioxide, MnO2, can be found as the black or dark grey mineral pyrolusite.
Common industrial applications of manganese dioxide include: dry cell battery material, pigments, and chemical intermediate or reagent. Manganese can be used as a precursor chemical in the preparation of MnO (manganous oxide) and KMnO4 (potassium permanganate).
Above 1080°C (1976°F), MnO2 will expel oxygen and become MnO, which may then work with the surrounding silica to produce violet and or brown colors (if reacting also with alumina).
Other colors that manganese dioxide can produce include: purple, soft brown, black, and red.
* Manganese glazes expel oxygen at temperatures over 1080°C (1976°F) and may blister or ruin the final result. The fumes during firing are highly toxic!
* The heated oxidation (O2) of 2MnO2 and 4KOH produces 2KMnO4(a green crystal) and 2H2O. This potassium manganate may be used to produce potassium permanganate, a useful purple-colored material useful as a potent fire accelerator and water purifier.
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