Personal Care

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The Personal Care Industry

Personal care and cosmetics innovations have been around for a long time. In fact some practices that are still popular today have ancient roots. For example, ancient Romans(753 BC-476 AD) enjoyed using oils and face powders on their skin, while manicured nails have been discovered on some bog bodies (most of which date back to the Stone Age). In modern times, more people are starting move away from artificial products and are instead using technology to research and take advantage of naturally available ones. Advancements in technology have also enabled better testing on modern products which increases both their safety levels and effectiveness.

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PC Chemical Materials

This section is dedicated to providing some information about some of the chemical ingredients we handle with a focus on their applications in the personal care industry. *Remember to use caution when trying new personal care products, and when necessary consult your physician for advise.

Corn Starch

Personal Care products include: eye & face makeup, face & body powder, bath bombs, face masks
Properties (specific to personal care applications): abrasive, absorbent, opacifying, viscosity agent- aq

Chivine sources corn starch from non-GMO corn.

Cosmetic grade corn starch is often used in similar or as a substitute in products where talc powder would normally be used.

Lactic Acid

Personal Care products include: lotions, moisturizers, anti-aging products, conditioner, shampoo, face & body wash +.
Properties (specific to personal care applications): exfoliant, pH adjuster, cell turnover (ex. acid-based skin peel), anti-aging, scar/discoloration-fix, fragrance ingredient, chelating agent, emollient, humectant

Chivine’s lactic acid is a product produced from the glucose of non-GMO corn.

Lactic acid in anti-aging products produces younger looking skin by promoting cell turnover and collagen growth, exfoliating dead skin cells, and making the skin more pliable and receptive to moisturizers.

Ethyl Lactate

Personal Care products include: acetone-free nail polish removers,
perfume, +

Properties (specific to personal care applications): multi-purpose solvent

Ethyl Lactate is an ester of lactic acid that is commonly used as a “green” and natural solvent. It is a pale yellow or colorless liquid with a relatively pleasant smell.

Sodium Lactate

Personal Care products include: lotions, moisturizers
Properties (specific to personal care applications): buffering agent, exfoliant, humectant, chelating-stabilizer,

As a naturally occurring compound in sweat and urine, urea is generally non-irritating to the skin. However, personal care urea is not obtained from these sources.

Shea Butter

Personal Care products include: moisturizers (ex, body butter), lip care & color products, soap & bar soap, hair conditioner & shampoo, anti-aging products, sunscreen, hair styling products, face masks, food related (various) +.
Properties (specific to personal care applications): emollient, oelic acid +

Shea Butter is a popular personal care & skin health butter similar to mango butter and cocoa butter. It is a typically a white-grey-green color and has a slightly rubbery pleasant, smell. The material is derived from the African Shea nut, and is both a natural and safe product. In fact, before its rise to fame in the cosmetics and skin care section of stores around the globe, Shea butter was traditionally used in cooking by the local Africans. However, this does not mean that you should go to your local beauty shop and pick up any old bottle and start consuming it! These products have likely been refined and in addition to other processing, likely have chemicals and other additives that you should not consume.

PC Mineral Materials

This section is dedicated to providing some information about popular/common mineral and clay materials we handle with a focus on their applications in the personal care industry. *Remember to use caution when trying new personal care products, and when necessary consult your physician for advise.

*Skip to metal oxides/ hydroxides- Metal Oxides/Hydroxides

Bentonite

Personal Care products include: dietary health (detox) supplement, cleansing facial masks, soaps, and more.
Properties (specific to personal care applications): heavy metal binder, fat & oil absorber, degrees of metal exchange properties.

Bentonite is an absorbent aluminum pyllosillicate clay that, apart from its many other industry applications, is also valued in the personal care industry as both a naturally beneficial and multi-purpose material. Although bentonite clay, like all clays, tends to vary in consistency depending on factors such as where it is sourced from and may even have slight variations in each “batch”, it is generally split into 2 types: Calcium Bentonite and Sodium Bentonite. Other types include: potassium and magnesium.

While all bentonites clays have a strong negative charge (responsible for the attraction of positively charged heavy metals), a measurable ion exchange rate, and the ability to absorb heavy metals, sodium and calcium are more economical. The key differences between sodium and calcium bentonite clays is that sodium bentonite has a stronger negative charge, swells much more, and is better at drawing out toxins or unwanted heavy metals. Calcium bentonite absorbs fats and oils, and
may be used to redistribute minerals such as silica, calcium, and other trace minerals, while drawing out (binding with) others.

Our bodies cannot break down clay, but this does not mean that a metal exchange will not occur (as in the case of calcium bentonite-sodium beneficiation). Additionally, the detox affects of the clay will give way to a more efficient absorption rate of other nutrients and vitamins consumed thereafter. However, the ability of the clay to redistribute beneficial minerals is a more complicated topic that (in order to accurately determine its true level of benefits) would involve understanding at least a few personal details about the individual consuming the clay. For example: the chemicals & compounds currently inside the person’s stomach, intestines, and colon, their sensitivities to sodium & calcium, and how all these things would would interact with each other.

Kaolin Clay

Personal Care products include: cleansing lipstick, face & eye makeup, sunscreen, facial masks, soaps
Properties (specific to personal care applications): opacifying agent, thickening agent, bulking agent, anti-caking, slip modifier

Kaolin is also known as “China Clay” and is a primary constituent of porcelain. In the personal care relm, kaolin clays are primarily sold for skin care applications, and can be bought either as is or already combined in finished products. Many personal care stores carry several “types” of kaolin clay based on the color. The difference in color is due to (or at least should be…) trace elements which may be region/source-specific. Some colors include: pink, yellow, white, and red.

Mica, (CI 77019)

Personal Care products include: face & eye makeup, `
Properties (specific to personal care applications): colorant, anti-caking, hypoallergenic

Mica is a reflective inorganic material with hypoallergenic properties that make it suitable for even sensitive skin. Mica levels in products have been found as high as 50%.

Talc

Personal Care products include: face & eye makeup, face &body powders, deodorant, lipstick, sunscreen, lotion +
Properties (specific to personal care applications): inert, odor & oil absorbing (absorbent), soft, anti-caking, opacifying

Talc, aka hydrated magnesium silicate, is a muti-purpose material and can be found in many powder-form cosmetic products, although it is most well-known for its usage in baby-powder.

Talcs particular qualities such as its ability to absorb oils, odor (many odors are in fact oils!), moisture, as well as its softness and general chemical inertness, make talc a popular mineral in many other product industries including: rubber, plastic, ceramics. *Some talc powders can be very fine and care should be taken when handling this easily-airborne-material.

Metal Oxides

This section is dedicated to providing some information about popular/common metal oxides/ hydroxides we handle with a focus on their applications in the personal care industry.

Metal Oxides have been used in cosmetics since the times of cave painting and tribal face paint popularity. Each one has its own singular properties and characteristics.

Aluminum Hydroxide

Personal Care products include: face & eye makeup, lipstick, nail polish, lip gloss, sunscreen, cosmetic products with SPF *especially foundation
Properties (specific to personal care applications): pH adjuster, opacifying, colorant, absorbent, texture enhancer

Aluminum hydroxide, or ATH, is an inorganic material with qualities that may make it more useful or practical in certain situations than a more common material with similar qualities.

Chromium Oxide (Green)

Personal Care products include: sunscreen, nail polish, face & eye makeup,
Properties (specific to personal care applications): non-irritating, inorganic colorant

Chromium Green Oxide is an inorganic colorant with a non-bleeding medium-green color. It is used in soap making, face & eye makeup, and other cosmetic products, except for lip products, where it is prohibited (in the USA).

Ferric Oxide

Personal Care products include: sunscreen, nail polish, face & eye makeup,
Properties (specific to personal care applications): non-irritating, inorganic colorant

Ferric oxide, or colcothar, is a red iron oxide with the chemical formula: Fe2O3.

Iron oxides are typically divided into 3 main groups: ferric hydrate (yellow)(CI 77491), ferric (red)(CI 77499), and ferrous (black)(CI 77489) iron oxide. They are classified as inorganic colors or colorants, as opposed to chemical ones. Iron oxide colorants, as with other inorganic and natural colorant materials (like beet extract), are considered safe and non-irritating to even sensitive skins. Unlike most other inorganic colorants, however, iron oxides are usually synthesized in labs because most naturally occurring ones tend to have large amounts of heavy metal impurities.

Ferrous Oxide

Personal Care products include: sunscreen, nail polish, face & eye makeup,
Properties (specific to personal care applications): non-irritating, inorganic colorant

Ferrous oxide, is a black iron oxide with the chemical formula: FeO.

Iron oxides are typically divided into 3 main groups: ferric hydrate (yellow)(CI 77491), ferric (red)(CI 77499), and ferrous (black)(CI 77489) iron oxide. They are classified as inorganic colors or colorants, as opposed to chemical ones. Iron oxide colorants, as with other inorganic and natural colorant materials (like beet extract), are considered safe and non-irritating to even sensitive skins. Unlike most other inorganic colorants, however, iron oxides are usually synthesized in labs because most naturally occurring ones tend to have large amounts of heavy metal impurities.

Tin Oxide

Personal Care products include: eye & face makeup, nail polish, lipstick, lip products, anti-aging products, lip & eye liner
Properties (specific to personal care applications): abrasive, bulking, opacifying, colorant

Tin oxide is a inorganic metal oxide that is most likely to be found in eye shadow, lipstick, lip gloss, or nail polish.

Titanium Dioxide, (CI 77891)

Personal Care products include: face & eye makeup, face & body powders, nail color, makeup colorant, lip color products, soap, concealer, sun screen, toothpaste, cosmetic products with SPF
Properties (specific to personal care applications): UV protection, opacifying, whitening*, thickening agent

Titanium dioxide scatters and reflects light and sun allowing it to give products sun protection and extra bright color. It is generally an inert material that can be applied on sensitive skin without problems.

*Micro fine titanium dioxide loses its color and becomes transparent, this version is most popular in clear sunscreens. However, micronized titanium dioxide is the preferred titanium dioxide for most other applications.

Zinc Oxide, (CI 77947)

Personal Care products include: face & body powders, sunscreen, face & eye makeup (colorant), lip color products, powder foundations, liquid foundations, skin treatment ointments, cosmetic products with SPF
Properties (specific to personal care applications): colorant, bulking agent, skin UV protection, binder, skin-friendly

Zinc oxide is a non-irritating inorganic metal oxide with the broadest UVA & UVB reflecting capabilities. It is popular in sunscreen and cosmetic products, such as foundation or lipstick, with SPF protection, and is allowed in levels up to 25%. Other popular applications such as face & eye makeup use zinc oxide as a colorant, bulking agent, and opacifying agent.

P.C. Mini-Glossary back to top

Welcome to the Personal Care Mini-Glossary! Chivine does have a larger Glossary located in the FAQ page, but this one is much more specific to personal care terminology, hope you enjoy it!

alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs): Chemical compound class where a carboxylic acid is substituted with a hydroxyl group on the adjacent carbon. The preferred AHAs for personal care & cosmetic applications are the ones typically derived from food products including glycolic acid (from sugar cane), lactic acid (from sour milk; glucose), malicacid (from apples), citric acid (from citrus fruits) and tartaric acid (from grape wine). Popular applications include anti-aging products & treatment a well as general skin care & rejuvenation.
Beta Hydroxy Acid (BHA):
BHAs are a organic compounds with a carboxylic acid functional group and hydroxy functional group separated by two carbon atoms. In the personal care industry, BHA generally refers to salicylic acid, a popular compound used in acne and anti-aging treatment/ products.

Cell Turnover: Cell turnover refers to the process in which new skin from lower layers rises up and sheds the old skin.
Emollient: Emollients are agents that function to keep the skin hydrated and soft by reducing evaporation. They may be sold as ointments, lotions, body butter, and other creams.
Emulsifier: An emulsifier is an agent that prevents a mixture homogeneous, and not separated into phases/layers.
Exfoliant: Emollients are agents that function to keep the skin hydrated and soft by reducing evaporation. They may be sold as ointments, lotions, body butter, and other creams.
Hypoallergenic:
Hypoallergenic materials or ingredients are ones that almost never cause skin irritation or adverse reactions to the skin.
Opacifying Agent: Opacifying agents are used in personal care & cosmetic products to reduce transparency or the translucency of a product. Products where this may be desired include: lotions/creams, concealers, nail polish, lip color products, and more.
Organic & Inorganic Colors: Colors and colorants used in the personal care, cosmetics, food and other such industries generally have 2 main categories of colors: organic and inorganic. Organic colors come in just about any shade imaginable and tend to be soluble in water and oil. They are usually synthetic chemicals and must be classified and thoroughly tested to ensure their safety.

Inorganic colors are generally regarded as safe and non-irritating and tend to be more stable. For these reasons, inorganic colors are preferred for usage in tattoos. Some examples include: mica, zinc oxide, titanium oxide, and iron oxides.

Recipes & Articles back to top

Chivine Resources has not made any recipes -yet, but when we do, we’ll be sure to upload it! For now, try exploring some of these recommended sites:

(link) or enter: http://empoweredsustenance.com/bentonite-clay-uses/ into your search bar. This site gives a whole lot of information about the usage and safety of the bentonite clays. At the end they have a 15 item list of bentonite uses from Head To Toe.

Disclaimer & Word of Advise back to top

It is always recommended to use caution when trying new personal care products; test the product on a small part of your skin. If you are prone to a commonly-used ingredient, be sure to check the product’s ingredients first.

Disclaimer: When necessary consult your physician for advise. Please do not use this website as a substitute for professional medical advice. While we try our best to provide accurate information, and occasionally, warnings or cautionary notes, everyone’s body is a different system and therefore may have its own needs, sensitivities, and other requirements. Safety First!