include: lithium, beryllium, magnesium, silicon, calcium, titanium, vanadium, chromium, manganese, gallium, germanium, arsenic, selenium, strontium, zirconium, niobium, molybdenum, ruthenium, rhodium, cadmium, indium, antimony, tellurium, hafnium, tantalum, tungsten, rhenium, osmium, iridium, mercury, thallium, bismuth, and all the rare earth elements- except for promethium. While their exact definition and listings tends to be less well-defined, many minor metals tend to be produced in smaller quantities than base metals, often as by-products extracted from base metal ores. However, there are exceptions to this, a more prominent example being tin.
Minor metals are employed in various commercial and industrial applications, but in lesser amounts and for more technical reasons. Popular applications are in electronics and technology.